Why Climate Change Might Mean Colder Weather

1677 River Thames ~ Abraham Hondius The History Channel

1677 River Thames
~ Abraham Hondius
The History Channel

For a long time I have not used the term “global warming” but have preferred to think in terms of “climate change” as a constant of life on earth regardless of whether man’s behavior effects it or not (though I have to believe that human behavior has its effects for I believe that everything is inter-related).

Last Sunday night my family watched a dvd from The History Channel about The Little Ice Age. This is not ancient history lost in the mists of time. This is history that most of us have learned some portion of in our schooling but I had no idea that sudden and brutal climate change was the underlying factor for so many events that I had other explanations for. I’ve long realized that climate change happens all the time on this planet. I don’t doubt that the behavior of such an overwhelming presence on the planet as human beings are would affect our planet’s overall qualities including its weather related qualities.

It was surprising to know that such diverse occurrences as the Irish Potato Famine, which peoples originally migrated into the United States of American and why, the “Black Death” bubonic plague, the fall of the Ming Dynasty with the breach of the Great Wall by Manchurian invaders giving rise to the Qing dynasty in China, the Salem Witch trails and burnings, the French Revolution, Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein book and the deaths of thousands of Napoleon’s troops in the Russian invasion are all effects of a 500 year long “Little Ice Age”.

Napoleon Retreating from Moscow in 1812 ~ The History Channel

Napoleon Retreating from Moscow in 1812
~ The History Channel

It is staggering to realize that it only took a couple of degrees change to bring it on or how quickly such a “flip” in climate can occur. This is not a rare occurrence in the history of the Earth’s climate. In his article, Thom Hartmann describes The Great Conveyor Belt including the Gulf Stream, undersea rivers that move currents of cold salty water from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Although much of Europe and Scandinavia are at the same latitude as Alaska and permafrost-locked parts of northern Canada and central Siberia, their climate is more similar to that of the United States than northern Canada or Siberia.

That warmth is the result of ocean currents that bring warm surface water up from the equator into northern regions that would otherwise be so cold that even in summer they’d be covered with ice. In the North Atlantic Ocean salty, cool waters settle to the bottom of the sea and then flow south down to and around the southern tip of Africa, where this river finally reaches the Pacific Ocean. The slightly lower level of the Atlantic ocean than the Pacific ocean draws in a strong surface current of warm, fresher water from the Pacific to replace the outflow of the undersea river from the Atlantic. This warmer, fresher water loops around North America where it’s known as the Gulf Stream, and ends up off the coast of Europe.

Map of  The Great Conveyor Belt

Map of
The Great Conveyor Belt

Amazingly, this Great Conveyor Belt is the only thing between comfortable summers and a permanent ice age for Europe and the eastern coast of North America. Only since the 1980s have scientists begun to understand the transition time from icy to warm back to icy. According to Hartmann, in studying ice core samples from Greenland “scientists were shocked to discover that the transitions from ice age-like weather to contemporary-type weather usually took only two or three years. Something was flipping the weather of the planet back and forth with a rapidity that was startling”.

These weather patterns are part of a delicately balanced teeter-totter, which can exist in one state or the other, but transits through the middle stage almost overnight. What brings on these sudden shifts are the warm-water currents of the Great Conveyor Belt shutting down. Once the Gulf Stream is no longer flowing, it only takes a year or three for the last of the residual heat held in the North Atlantic Ocean to dissipate into the air over Europe, and then there is no more warmth to moderate the northern latitudes. When the summer stops in the north, the rains also stop around the equator so that at the same time Europe is plunging into an Ice Age, the Middle East and Africa are being ravaged by drought and wind-driven firestorms.

This is weather that is NOT for the faint-hearted !!! If the Great Conveyor Belt, which includes the Gulf Stream, were to stop flowing today, the result would be sudden and dramatic. Winter would set in for the eastern half of North America and all of Europe and Siberia, and never go away. Within three years, those regions would become uninhabitable and nearly two billion humans would starve, freeze to death, or have to relocate.

Most scientists involved in research on this topic agree that the culprit is global warming, melting the icebergs on Greenland and the Arctic icepack and thus flushing cold, fresh water down into the Greenland Sea from the north. When a critical threshold is reached, the climate will suddenly switch to an ice age that could last minimally 700 or so years, and maximally over 100,000 years.

OK, so what’s the GOOD NEWS ? There is some . . . there is “hope” (except whatever is beyond what human beings are able to control at all – like a giant meteor striking the Earth or a coronal mass ejection from the sun !!). According to a very recent article in New York Magazine by Jonathan Chait, “There is good news. And not just incremental good news but transformational good news, developments that have the potential to mitigate the worst effects of climate change to a degree many had feared impossible.” He goes on to say “The world is suddenly responding to the climate emergency with — by the standards of its previous behavior — astonishing speed.”

Rail Cars loaded with Coal

Rail Cars loaded with Coal

A quick bold print snapshot tells us that Coal usage has declined 21% since 2007 and that the number of operational coal-powered electric generating plants has dropped from 523 in 2009 to 323 in 2015. I recently heard a bit on NPR about the railroads in Kansas City. Only 10 years ago, “… railroads couldn’t hire people fast enough. They couldn’t lease locomotives fast enough. They couldn’t upgrade the infrastructure quick enough. They couldn’t build railcars to haul the stuff quick enough.” according to Zach Pumphery, a train engineer in Kansas City. Since 2008 the rail traffic has dropped by the equivalent of 14,000 train loads for coal production alone. According to Frank Morris, “The big reason is the power plants like this one in Kansas City are switching from coal to natural gas, which is cheap now and burns cleaner.”

More good news ? The cost of a watt of solar power has dropped from $101 in 1975 to $0.61 in 2015. Global solar power installations have grown from 10,000 in 2009 to 65,000 in 2015. China plans to add 18 gigawatts of solar energy capacity in 2015 alone (just compare that to the TOTAL gigawatt capacity in the US of 20). “Clean Energy” has added 125,000 NEW jobs since 2013. And the number of electric cars has increased from 200,000 in 2012 to 750,000 in 2015.

The “Good News” is a long article but well worth reading to avoid despair over the climate change challenges. A link to the full article can be found in the ~ Information Resources at the end of this blog – “The Sunniest Climate-Change Story You’ve Ever Read”.

Good News Clouds

~ Information Resources

“Little Ice Age, Big Consequences” posted by Jennie Cohen, Jan 31, 2013 posted at The History Channel – http://www.history.com/news/little-ice-age-big-consequences

“Napoleon’s Disastrous Invasion of Russia, 200 Years Ago” posted by Jesse Greenspan, June 22, 2012 at The History Channel – http://www.history.com/news/napoleons-disastrous-invasion-of-russia-200-years-ago

“How Global Warming May Cause the Next Ice Age…” posted by Thom Hartmann, Jan 30, 2004 at Common Dreams – http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0130-11.htm

“The Sunniest Climate-Change Story You’ve Ever Read” posted by Jonathan Chait, Sept 7, 2015 posted at New York Magazine – http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2015/09/sunniest-climate-change-story-ever-read.html

“Fall In Shipping Commodities Threatens Commercial Railroad Industry” by Frank Morris on All Things Considered aired on NPR Sept 2, 2015 – http://www.npr.org/2015/09/02/436944868/fall-in-shipping-commodities-threatens-commercial-railroad-industry

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Blog author ~ Deborah Hart Yemm is co-founder of
Yemm & Hart, a green materials producer

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Facing Up to Climate Change

Bear Glacier Alaska

It is unfortunate that the first alarms about changes in the planetary climate were labeled Global Warming because it gave too much to climate change deniers to loudly proclaim the science faulty. However, climate change affects us all and we might as well face up to what it will mean to who, how and where. I’m not Catholic but I really like the current Pope Francis. He is a gutsy guy and humble too. I believe he truly is living his life in service to the common man and that is rare in anyone with power in our world today.

In December 2015, Paris will host the United Nations Climate Change Conference. According to the organizing committee, the objective of the 2015 conference is to achieve, for the first time in over 20 years of UN negotiations, a binding and universal agreement on climate, from all the nations of the world. (I won’t hold my breath on that achievement but it is a worthy goal.)

Pope Francis  ~ photo by Franco Origlia for Getty Images

Pope Francis
~ photo by Franco Origlia for Getty Images

In advance of that conference, Pope Francis has issued an official encyclical titled “On Care for Our Common Home” which makes explicit the connection between climate change and the oppression of the poorest and most vulnerable in our human family. Wired.com describes it as “… well-argued, clear, at times quite moving…and 42,000 words long”. I am indebted to their science writers for highlighting the “good stuff”. I have long argued that “the Earth” doesn’t need saving but that humankind does. That is really the issue here.

I agree that too many modern people have totally lost any connection with the natural world. I have to remind myself at times that the majority of urban dwellers do not experience the wildness of nature on a daily basis as I and my husband and children are fortunate enough to have right outside the door of our home. That loss of connection deceives people into thinking of their lives as something separate from and superior to the natural world and from that point onward, arrogance begins to inform choices that actually matter.

Blog author, Deborah Yemm, with sons Simeon and Treston out in the wild

Blog author, Deborah Yemm, with sons Simeon and Treston out in the wild

My husband and I recently watched a documentary about The Corporation. I am well aware that these large organizations also employ a lot of people at a time when employment is an issue due to advances in technology that have made obsolete many of the ways that people have previously provided for their families. I commend enlightened leaders of such corporations, like Ray Anderson the CEO of Interface a flooring manufacturer who came to realize the way that companies such as his have been “exploiters”. Awareness is an important first step towards making meaningful changes.

So it is that Pope Francis has recognized that without awe and wonder for nature and the environment human beings become voracious consumers and ruthless exploiters who are unable to delay the gratification of their every desire or even set any kind of limits on their immediate needs in awareness of the limits that exist regarding natural resources. It is not possible to draw boundaries on the global environment – the air and water circulate freely among all people and cannot be truly “owned” (though some have tried to do this) by any individual, country or organization.

Scientists were not entirely wrong that there has been some global warming. One need only compare old photographs of glaciers with the same geographical regions to see the truth. The melting of ice on our planet is causing the sea level to rise. This is simply the natural behavior of water anywhere as it changes state. It is clear that water is going to be a huge issue for humanity going forward. The Pope declares in his memo that “access to safe drinkable water is a basic and universal human right, since it is essential to human survival and, as such, is a condition for the exercise of other human rights”.

Every person on this planet is affected by climate change in one way or another. The biggest problem for humanity will be the intensity of events whether they are droughts or floods. And adding to the realities of climate change are the burdens of increasing population so that intensive agriculture in places like California and other dry or desert type environments in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas are depleting aquifers at an unsustainable rate for there is no “recharge” to keep them filled. One cannot simply use resources in an unsustainable manner and not eventually hit the brick wall where it all stops.

California Drought

My family enjoys eating many of the foods that California provides to the world. The farmers in California use 80% of the state’s water resources. Almonds which my family enjoys raw or as Almond Butter because the nut is one of the more nutritious choices we can make have received a lot of attention for how much water growing them consumes but that is not all that California produces. Believe in eating your vegetables especially in healthy salads ? It is quite likely that your lettuce, carrots, and celery came from California. Lately my family has been enjoying seasonal fruits like peaches and plums. Yes, California grows those too. Do you enjoy the occasional artichoke or regularly eat asparagus and broccoli ? The drought in California has direct impacts on people’s efforts to be healthy.

The Pope rightly sees “science and technology are wonderful products of God-given human creativity”. Human beings ARE part of nature too. What humans beings do cannot be separated from the Earth and that is the point really. The Pope also sees a need for “a sound ethics, a culture and spirituality genuinely capable of setting limits and teaching clear-minded self-restraint”. I certainly don’t disagree.

In Wired.com’s summary of the Pope’s Memo they note – “When nature is viewed solely as a source of profit and gain, this has serious consequences for society. This vision of ‘might is right’ has engendered immense inequality, injustice and acts of violence against the majority of humanity, since resources end up in the hands of the first comer or the most powerful: the winner takes all.”

“The natural environment is a collective good, the patrimony of all humanity and the responsibility of everyone. If we make something our own, it is only to administer it for the good of all. If we do not, we burden our consciences with the weight of having denied the existence of others.”

~ Information Resources

2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015_United_Nations_Climate_Change_Conference

The Pope’s Memo on Climate Change Is a Mind-Blower – http://www.wired.com/2015/06/popes-memo-climate-change-mind-blower/

California’s Drought Could Upend America’s Entire Food System by Natasha Geiling posted on May 5, 2015 – http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/05/05/3646965/california-drought-and-agriculture-explainer/

Interface is a worldwide leader in design, production and sales of environmentally-responsible modular carpet for the commercial, institutional, and residential markets – http://www.interfaceglobal.com/

The Corporation, a documentary – http://www.thecorporation.com/

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Blog author ~ Deborah Hart Yemm is co-founder of
Yemm & Hart, a green materials producer

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Regardless of the Truth

Polar Bear on Ice Pinnacle

There is no agreement on what causes a climate to change, there is not even agreement as to whether such change would be beneficial or destructive. I know what I believe about it but that is NOT the point of this blog. Another topic with little agreement nor with even obvious confirmation regards the finite quantity of “fossil” fuel on the planet. There is a fixed amount and while technology is extracting fuel in ways and from places not previously believed possible, the ultimate reality of a finite quantity remains. Environmentalists act as if, even in the absence of proof, because there is no harm to the viability of the planet for human habitation by behaving as though.

Without a doubt, the built environment has a role to play in the future qualities of whatever environment human kind will inhabit. In recent years, the building industry is hugely dependent on cheap oil, from the manufacture and transportation of its materials, to the machinery and tools used in demolition and construction. This is primarily true in the more “developed” economies of the planet. The use of fossil fuels contributes to carbon emissions. That is the simple truth. The built environment is also responsible for significant amounts of pollution, whether of air, soil or water, and tons of landfill waste.

Cartoon Gas Please Wait

Because the finite nature of all fossil fuels means that they will someday be depleted, reducing consumption is one obvious strategy for extending survival. At the moment, it is difficult to imagine a world, so far different than the one we now inhabit, that the availability of, or lack of, fossil fuel energy resources could not help but change our quality of life radically. And it is again, uncertain what kind of radical change that might be – beneficial or destructive.

Choosing to build “green” is one way to save energy resources. The low embodied energy of green products ensures that very little energy goes into their manufacture and production, resulting in a direct reduction of carbon emissions. Eco friendly design methodology can reduce energy consumption by significantly reducing the energy inputs for heating, cooling and light, including the usage of energy efficient appliances. By saving energy, the building occupant also saves money – and that issue will become more significant, if the cost of fossil fuels rises higher, due to scarcity or higher costs of extraction, in the future.

Many design professionals and their clients are increasingly aware of indoor air quality. Many of our modern industrial conveniences and components of the built environment include chemical pollutants (paints, solvents, plastics and composite timbers) and require new thinking about the potential for biological pollutants (dust mites and molds, which are known to cause symptoms such as asthma, headaches, depression, eczema, palpitations and chronic fatigue syndrome). Building “green” with thoughtful considerations can eliminate these problems – by incorporating good ventilation, breathable walls, and the use of natural, non-toxic (including recycled) products and materials.

Forever Green Innovation

Green building is not only a wise choice for our future; it is also a necessary choice. The construction industry must adopt eco-friendly practices and materials that reduce its impacts, before we reach a point of irreversible damage to our life supporting systems. Thankfully, we see the industry, through the US Green Building Council and their LEED program, taking the initiative to find alternative ways to build, using renewable energy resources, and adopting non-polluting practices and materials that reduce, recycle and reuse, already TODAY – without governmental policy or more urgent motivations.

I am deeply indebted with this blog, to the thoughts expressed by Jennifer Gray, in an article titled “Eco Friendly Construction Methods and Materials“, published April 8, 2014 at Sustainable Build – for the perspectives of United Kingdom environmentalists. Her thinking so closely matches my own thoughts, I found myself in thorough agreement with the perspectives she expressed. Concerns for the future viability of our environment truly know NO borders.

Yemm & Hart is committed in our business and in our personal lives to doing our part to extend the survive-ability of human life on this planet. More than that, upholding a “good” quality of life for all people.

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Blog author ~ Deborah Hart Yemm is co-founder of
Yemm & Hart, a green materials producer

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Is Winter Fading From The Olympics ?

Sochi 2014 Olympics

Like many people, I am aware of the Winter Olympics taking place in Sochi Russia at the present time. I am not watching them. Not because I do not love the winter events; but because we have chosen NOT to have any commercial television in our home. There is some good content on commercial TV and we lose out on being able to watch that. In the past, I would have loved watching the figure skating events; and now, I would enjoy the snowboarding as well, as my sons mild interest in skateboards has made me more aware of that modern culture.

The Nagano Japan post-game IOC report in 1998 contained the first mention of climate change in the context of the Olympics. The authors of the report said, “The depletion of the ozone layer and global warming are two examples of issues affecting our natural ecosystem on a worldwide scale. Therefore, striving to host the Olympic Winter Games in harmony with nature is especially important, and we ask the IOC and future Olympic Winter Games host cities to pay close attention to the environment.” The pool of locations capable of hosting the games will shrink as the climate warms — and the colder mountain cities that may be the best fit may not have the infrastructure to handle a massive influx of athletes, spectators and organizers. That will force some difficult decisions, making it an interesting dilemma the International Olympic Committee will be caught in.

By 1980, when Lake Placid hosted the Winter Olympics again, organizers were tinkering with making snow on the alpine ski courses. The practice became commonplace after the 1998 Games in Calgary, and this year Sochi is boasting an armada of over 500 snowmaking guns, one of the largest in Europe. Snow making requires the use of vast amounts of electricity, and the utility bill has now become one of the largest costs for resorts. The act of making snow where coal is used to generate the energy to make the snow is only exacerbating the situation. The good news is that, many ski resorts are increasing the wind, solar and other types of renewable, clean-burning fuel they use for power generation. Plus, snowmaking equipment is increasingly energy efficient. It takes about 150,000 gallons of water to make enough snow to cover an acre of ski trail one foot deep.

Glacier before and after

We need to be more concerned about climate change, whether we can reverse or slow it down, or whether we must adapt and cope with the changes that it will bring into every life on this planet. It does no good to pretend there are no impacts. I remember being shocked at the retreat of glaciers. One can’t help but be seriously impressed that a change is happening in our climate. Already, signs of an unwelcome thaw have appeared at even the highest elevations. This season, the Verbier 4 Vallées resort in Switzerland eliminated two chair lifts after the lower edge of Tortin Glacier, at 2,800 metres elevation, receded by 40 metres in just 15 years.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the snow season has shrunk by about three weeks since the early 1970s and snow cover is projected to decline substantially by the end of the century, according to a report released in September by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Being a casual student of Earth science, I know that the climate has never been a stagnant or stable force in planetary existence. And so, today, I consider that the “winter” environments so celebrated by the Winter Olympics, may become a 100% artificial creation in the future – indeed has already become such, to a great extent. In the states of Connecticut and Massachusetts, here in the USA, there is a combined total of 17 skiing areas. A recent study suggests that by 2039, none will sustain a viable skiing season — defined by industry as 100 days or more — even with artificial snow-making.

Typical Snow Cannon in Russia

Typical Snow Cannon in Russia

Skiing is a winter sport that prides itself on being harmoniously in step with the rhythms of nature. But sometimes, it turns out, nature falls out of step, failing to drop enough snow to meet the early demand for skiers. So technology steps in. And what about artificial snow making ? What are the environmental impacts of depending on such methods to create artificial winter sports environments ? A warmer, moister atmosphere will produce heavier, wetter snow, not the dry, fluffy ‘champagne powder’ prized by many recreational skiers. Artificial snow created with snow-making cannons is often icy, perfect for laying the base of lightning-fast competition runs but less favorable for the average skier. And temperatures that skirt the freezing mark increase the risk that precipitation will fall as rain, not snow, and will raise the density of the snowpack.

The fluffy blankets on the trails at the Loveland Colorado resort are largely produced by snow guns using water pumped from nearby streams. Environmentalists have been raising concerns for years, that the ski industry is becoming so reliant on water diverted for artificial snow that fish in rivers and streams might be endangered. “For most skiers, who tend to be environmentalists themselves, this hits a little close to home,” said Lewis Milford, a lawyer with the Conservation Law Foundation in Montpelier, Vt., a private environmental group. “When it comes to environmental damage, we tend to think of the traditional bad guys — mining, logging, ranching. But snow making takes a lot of water out of rivers and streams, in some cases depleting them to dangerously low levels. And this is something we’ve got to face up to.”

The Russians have spent the last year stockpiling snow for the Olympic venues. I can relate to the temperature shock that skiers, snowboarders and other athletes got when they arrived in Sochi, Russia, for the 22nd Olympic Winter Games. When we traveled from Missouri to Hawaii in Nov 2010, we experienced a similar effect. So, the athletes as they traveled into town from the airport, passed rows of palm trees, which thrive in the breezes blowing off the Black Sea. Only 40 km away, on the ski slopes of Rosa Khutor, the Sochi Olympic organizers have spent a year, manufacturing and stockpiling snow as a hedge, against the region’s mild climate.

A group of environmentalists filed suit in the Colorado Supreme Court in an effort to block a planned snow-making expansion by the Aspen Skiing Company at Snowmass. And ski operators in New England have also faced resistance from environmental groups. The growth in artificial snow has been fueled by fierce competition among resorts to provide the deep blankets demanded by customers and to stretch the ski season. The Loveland and Keystone ski areas in Colorado open now nearly two weeks before Halloween. A generation ago, ski resorts typically did not open until after Thanksgiving, often not until after Christmas, unless the mountains were hit with an early storm. Ski resorts in Colorado are now diverting three or four times the volume of water for snow making that they used a decade ago, said Hal Simpson, the director of the Division of Water Resources in Colorado. Even so, the volume of water used for making snow is tiny compared to the amount used for agriculture.

Brown Trout  in a Colorado stream

Brown Trout
in a Colorado stream

“There is an emerging and growing list of compounds [about which] we don’t know the affects”, according to Taylor McKinnon, public lands director for the Center for Biological Diversity. He says, “… we know that endocrine disruptors [in wastewater] will change fish sex ratios. This points to the need for additional research and more advanced water treatment.” Brown trout incubate in the gravel of stream beds and hatch in the spring. The danger of low water flows is that streams could freeze and then rip the fish eggs from the water bed. “It could lower the flow so much that the trout wouldn’t survive,” said Mr. Simpson, “especially since they make snow in the late fall, just when the streams are at the lowest.” But he said he did not believe that snow making had yet caused serious ecological damage.

The Arizona Snowbowl resort in the San Francisco Peaks north of Flagstaff AZ would be the first resort in the U.S. to use 100 percent treated wastewater to make snow, it’s a common practice in Europe and in parts of Australia. Experts believe that it does not make people sick nor does it result in contaminates reaching flora or fauna. There are concerns that the water may contain chemical inputs from pharmaceuticals and other potentially hazardous hard-to-trace sources. To avoid the battle over diverting water from streams and rivers, some ski resorts have turned to retention ponds, an alternative that has been praised by environmentalists. The Okemo Mountain Resort in Ludlow VT built a huge pond for snow making, a pool that covers eight acres and is up to 50 feet deep.

We don’t make snow (we make materials with recycled content – www.yemmhart.com) but we do care about climate change. The last time we skied was at Yellowstone National Park in Jan 2013; and they did not need to make snow. Our family enjoyed cross-country skiing there. Visitors to the park, at that time of year, are brought in groups of 10-12 people, in specialized equipment called Snowcoaches. Snowmobiles have limited access. Founded in 1872, the park takes care of the environment they are entrusted with protecting. For that concern, and the opportunity to ski on natural snow, we are exceedingly grateful.

Yellowstone Snowcoach

Yellowstone Snowcoach

~ Information Resources

“Winter Olympics: Downhill forecast” by Lauren Morello posted at Nature.com on Feb 4, 2014 – http://www.nature.com/news/winter-olympics-downhill-forecast-1.14639

“The Battle Over Artificial Snow” by Dirk Johnson posted in The NY Times online on Nov 14, 1994 – http://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/14/us/the-battle-over-artificial-snow.html

“Winter Olympics Inadvertently Adapting to Climate Change” by Brian Kahn posted at ClimateCentral.org on Feb 7, 2014 – http://www.climatecentral.org/news/the-olympics-have-been-a-model-for-climate-adaptation-for-90-years-17041

“The Nasty Environmental Impact of Making Snow” posted at Outside online on Oct 11, 2012 – http://www.outsideonline.com/blog/outdoor-adventure/science/the-environmental-impact-of-making-snow.html

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Blog author ~ Deborah Hart Yemm is co-founder of
Yemm & Hart, a green materials producer

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